Photographs taken by Joseph Needham on the journey to the southwest from 1 Aug. to 31 Oct., 1944

Photographs taken by Joseph Needham on the journey to the southwest from 1 Aug. to 31 Oct., 1944, when Joseph Needham travelled

Tan Chia-Chen at the Chekiang University Biology Department, Meitan(Meitan), Kweichow(Guizhou)
談家楨教授在浙江大學生物係, 湄潭, 貴州

Geneticist Tan Chia-Chen (2nd right) and other researchers at the Chekiang University Biology Department, Meitan(Meitan), Kweichow(Guizhou)
談家楨教授(右二)和其他研究人員在浙江大學生物係, 湄潭, 貴州

Researchers using microscopes amongst the experimental plots of Chekiang University Agricultural Research Institute, Meitan(Meitan), Kweichow(Guizhou)
研究人員在浙江大學農業研究所實驗田使用顯微鏡, 湄潭, 貴州

Chu Ko-Chen, President of Chekiang University, at a meeting of the Science Society of China, Kweichow(Guizhou)
浙江大學校長竺可楨在中國科學社會議中, 湄潭, 貴州

Chu Ko-Chen, President of Chekiang University, at a meeting of the Science Society of China, Meitan(Meitan), Kweichow(Guizhou)
浙江大學校長竺可楨在中國科學社會議中, 湄潭, 貴州

Chu Ko-Chen, President of Chekiang University, addressing a meeting of the Science Society of China. The picture includes Wang Jin, and Bei Shizhang and Wang Baoren across the table from him, Meitan(Meitan), Kweichow(Guizhou) 浙江大學校長竺可楨在中國科學社會議上发言, 照片中桌子周围有王璡、貝時璋、王葆仁, 湄潭, 貴州

Lo Teng-Yi, a nutritional scientist at the Chekiang University Agricultural Research Institute showing specimens of a kind of large wild rose-hip exceptionally rich in vitamin C, Meitan(Meitan), Kweichow(Guizhou)
浙江大學農業研究所營養科學家羅登義展示一種大型野生玫瑰的樣本含有豐富的維生素C, 湄潭, 貴州

Science in Kweichow and Kuangsi 贵州和广西的科学

Science in Kweichow and Kuangsi
British Scientific Mission in China

After some lapse of time, the opportunity again presents itself of continuing the series of articles on science in China in war-time, of which seven have already appeared in Nature. In this and the following article, on China’s far south-east, I shall be describing an area which I visited in the summer of 1944, just before the tide of war overwhelmed nearly all of it, wrecking many scientific installations and forcing many of the scientific workers I met to take to the roads in evacuation or to the mountains in dispersal. 经过一段时间的延误后,我再次有机会继续撰写关于战时中国科学的一系列文章,其中七篇已经发表在《自然》杂志上。在本文和接下来的文章中,我将描述中国东南部的一个地区,我在1944年夏天访问过这个地区,当时战争即将席卷整个地区,摧毁了许多科学设施,迫使许多我遇到的科学工作者们不得不逃往路上或疏散到山区。
Taking the city of Chungking as the central point of China this area is China’s south-eastern quarter, To enter it, the traveller must follow the southern road from the capital, winding over half a dozen passes through the protecting mountains, until he reaches Kweiyang, the capital of the relatively barren and rocky province of Kweichow. A few hundred kilometres south-east of this city is Tushan. the rail- head of the uncompleted Kweichow-Kuangsi railway, and here he may entrain for the descent through mountains wreathed in cloud to the fertile plains and rolling hills of Kuangsi around the city of Liuchow. The capital of Kuangsi is, however, farther east, at Kweilin, amidst that extraordinary scenery of ‘Karst’ limestone pinnacles arid sugar-loaf hills rising abruptly out of the plain which Justifies to the incredulous foreigner the fidelity of Chinese scroll-paintings. Thence the railway goes on the east, baring north to Hengyang and then south to the temporary railhead at Kukong in Kuangtung. 以重庆作为中国的中心点,该地区位于中国的东南四分之一。要进入该地区,旅行者必须沿着首都的南部道路前进,穿过保护山脉的六七个关口,直到抵达贵阳,这座相对贫瘠多岩的贵州省的省会。在贵阳东南几百公里的地方是都匀,即未完工的贵州至广西铁路的终点,旅行者可以在这里乘火车穿过云雾缭绕的山脉,抵达柳州周围的广西肥沃平原和丘陵地带。然而,广西的首府桂林更偏东,位于桂林的喀斯特石灰岩尖峰和糖块状山丘的奇特景色之中,这些山丘突然从平原上拔地而起,使难以置信的外国人相信了中国卷轴画的真实性。然后,铁路继续向东延伸,向北至衡阳,然后向南至广东的临时铁路终点曲江。
Between Chungking and Kweiyang at a small town called Tsunyi is to be found Chekiang University, one of the best four in china. Housed largely in old and dilapidated temples, there is not enough room for all of it at Tsunyi, so the scientific faculties are situated at of very pretty and very small town, Meitan, some 75 km. away to the east. It is typical of the preset transport situation in China that although the University started with three trucks and a car to maintain its communications, all have long ago broken down and are unrepairable and unreplaceable so that eminent and aged scholars such as the deans of faculties on their necessary journeys have to perch on the top of loaded army trucks on a trip which may take two days over a road passing through very few inhabited places. 在重庆和贵阳之间,一个叫做遵义的小镇上有浙江大学,这是中国最好的四所大学之一。这所大学主要设在陈旧破败的庙宇中,遵义的校舍空间不足,因此理学院位于非常美丽且非常小的湄潭镇,向东大约75公里。这充分反映了当时中国交通不便的典型情况,虽然大学初创时仅有三辆卡车和一辆汽车用于维持通讯,但这些车辆早已损坏,无法修复和替换。因此,一些德高望重的资深学者,如各院系的院长们,在必要的出行中,不得不坐在满载的军用卡车的顶部,这样的旅程可能需要两天时间,沿途经过的居住点也寥寥无几。
The president of Chekiang University is Dr. Chu Ko-ching, China’s leading meteorologist, who is con-currently head of the Academia Sinica Meteorological Institute. At Meitan one finds a hive of scientific activity. The Biological Department, headed by Dr. Bei Shih-Chang a pupil of Spemann Harms, and Hertwig has been working on induction phenomena in regeneration in coelenterates insect hormones, etc. Here also at the time of our visit was the eminent geneticist Dr. Tan Chia-chen, whose work on the curious colour-pattern inheritance in ladybird beerles is now arousing much interest in the United States, where he has gone for a year’s visit. In chemistry there are Dr. Wang Bao-Rjeng (a pupil of J. F. Thorpe’s), working on sulpha-drug derivatives (some of which have been found to be active as plant- growth hormones) and Dr. Wang Chin a specialist on microanalysis and the history of Chinese alchemy. This very active-minded group is completed by Chang Chi-Kai, a German-trained specialist on local anesthetics and by Sun Tsung-peng, American trained biochemist. 浙江大学的校长是竺可桢博士,他是中国领先的气象学家,同时也是中央研究院气象研究所的所长。在湄潭,人们可以发现一片科研活动的热土。生物系由贝时璋博士领导,他曾师从斯佩曼、哈姆斯和赫特维希,主要研究海绵动物和昆虫激素等的再生诱导现象。在我们访问期间,著名的遗传学家谈家桢博士也在此地,他关于瓢虫奇特颜色图案遗传的研究现在在美国引起了广泛关注,他已赴美进行为期一年的访问。化学系有王葆仁博士(J. F. 索普的学生),致力于磺胺类药物衍生物的研究(其中一些被发现具有植物生长激素的活性),以及专注于微量分析和中国炼金术历史的王琎博士。这个充满活力的团队还包括在德国受过训练的局部麻醉剂专家张其楷,以及在美国受过训练的生物化学家孙宗彭。
In physics, work is proceeding mostly on theoretical lines owing to lack of apparatus in nuclear physics, geometrical optics, etc. ; but the level is distinctly high (Drs. Wang Gan-Chang, an Edinburgh man, Ting Hsu-Bao, Ho Tseng-lu a pupil of Millikan’s, and the promising Cheng Kai-Djia). There is a special mathematical institute directed by the geometer Dr. Su Bu-Chin. 在物理学领域,由于核物理学、几何光学等领域的实验设备不足,研究工作主要侧重于理论方面;但研究水平明显很高(如爱丁堡大学毕业的王淦昌博士、密立根的学生何增禄博士,以及才华横溢的程开甲博士)。这里还有一个由几何学家苏步青博士领导的杰出的数学研究所。
The Agricultural research institute, with a large area of experimental plots is also doing much work. Dr. Lo Teng-Yi in biochemistry has discovered a high vitamin content in the large hips of the local wild rose Rosa multiflora (20 mgm. ascorbic acid per gm., and 30 mgm. vitamin P per gm. ), and some 35 mgm. per gm. of vitamin P in the Chinese ‘date’ Or ‘jujube’ as it should be called. Zizyphus vulgaris. Dr. Bai Han-Hsi in the fermentation division, is studying the interesting Kweichow ‘barm’ used in malting the famous ‘mao-tai’ wine, which, besides its yeast, contains no less than twenty-eight special added drags, some of which accelerate saccharification while others probably inhibit contaminating micro-organisms. This recipe is an extraordinary example of a procedure with centuries of trial and error work behind it, ensuring good results under country conditions where no sterilization precautions are taken. It even has a war importance, for a certain proportion of the power alcohol used by Allied military trucks upon the roads of China is distilled from spirits prepared in the traditional way by the farmers and brought to central distilleries. In soil science under Dr. Peng Chien, investigations on soil pH are in progress, and on trace elements nickel zinc etc., with special reference to tea, legume, and vegetable culture. 农业研究所拥有大片实验田,也开展了大量工作。罗登义博士在生物化学领域发现,当地野生玫瑰(Rosa multiflora)的果实富含维生素,每克果实中含有20毫克的抗坏血酸(维生素C)和30毫克的维生素P。另外,他还发现中国枣树(应称为“枣”或“枣子”,学名为Zizyphus vulgaris)的果实每克含有约35毫克的维生素P。在发酵部门,白汉熙博士正在研究贵州地区用于酿造著名“茅台”酒的有趣“酒曲”。这种酒曲除了含有酵母外,还添加了不少于28种特殊药物,其中一些药物能加速糖化过程,而另一些药物则可能抑制污染微生物的生长。这种配方是经过数百年反复试验得出的非凡例子,在没有采取任何消毒预防措施的乡村条件下确保了良好的结果。它甚至具有战争意义,因为在中国道路上行驶的盟军军车所使用的部分动力酒精,就是从农民用传统方法酿造的酒中蒸馏出来,再送到中央酿酒厂的。在彭谦博士领导下的土壤科学领域,正在开展对土壤酸碱度(pH值)的研究,以及对微量元素镍、锌等的研究,特别关注茶叶、豆类和蔬菜的栽培。
In Tsunyi, there is also the All-China Agricultural Research Institute, where very solid work, led by Dr. Tsai Bao, goes on. 在遵义,还有全中国农业研究所,在蔡堡博士的带领下进行着非常扎实的研究工作。
At Kweiyang, a larger town than either Tsunyi or Meitan we found a number of scientific organizations. The largest was the Army’s Emergency Medical Service Training School in a beautiful wooded valley among hills called Tuyunkuan ; but besides this there were two civilian medical schools, Hsiangya Medical College and Kweiyang Medical College. There was also the Kweichow University situated some 20 km. to the west of the town in the famous park of Huachi. 在贵阳,这座比遵义和湄潭都要大的城镇里,我们发现了许多科学组织。其中规模最大的是位于风景秀丽的群山环抱、林木葱茏的土云关(Tuyunkuan)的军队紧急医疗服务培训学校;但除此之外,还有两所平民医学院校,即湘雅医学院和贵阳医学院。还有位于市区以西约20公里的著名花溪公园内的贵州大学。
There was a branch vaccine laboratory of the National Epidemics Prevention Bureau, a branch of the National Agricultural Research Bureau, a number of important industrial enterprises including a low- temperature carbonization plant and a chlorate plant, and several plants of the Ordnance Administration. About 150 km. to the west, at a pretty town called Anshun, there was the regular Army- Medical College. Finally, within Kweiyang city, there was the Provincial Science Institute. Among such a wealthy of worthwhile Institute, there is space to mention only a few salient points of interest. 这里还有国家流行病预防局的一个疫苗实验室分支机构、国家农业研究局的一个分支机构、一些重要的工业企业,包括一家低温碳化厂和一家氯酸盐厂,以及军械管理局的几个工厂。向西约150公里处,有一个漂亮的小镇叫安顺,那里有正规的陆军医学院。最后,在贵阳市内,还有省科学研究所。在如此众多有价值的机构中,只能提及其中几个引人注目的要点。
The Tuyunkuan College was originally organized by Lieut.-General Robert Lim (Ling Ko-Hsing), the internationally known Edinburgh physiologist. It trains all grades of medical workers for the army, alternating laboratory courses with experience in the field. Dr. Chen Wen-Kuei’s model vaccine plant and bacteriological laboratory deserve mention; Dr. Ling Fei-ching is studying the penicillin productions of the indigenous strains of Penicillium. An interesting and valuable X-ray apparatus repair station (the only one in China) is directed by her husband. Dr. Rjung Tu-Shan.? In teaching chemistry, Dr. Li Kuan-Hua has organized extremely ingenious Semi-micro methods which it was a pleasure to see in use by his classes. The reagent sodium tungstate was being manufactured here. The Hsiangya Medical College (Dean Chang Hsiao-Chien, a pupil of Krogh’s) had some wretched buildings ; but excellent men, such as Dr. Ching Wen-sse the pharmacologist, studying the Chinese drug ‘Yadantze’ which has an emetine-like action in dysentery. The Kweiyang Medical College (President Li Tsung-En, trained at Glasgow) has the distinguished pathologist Dr. Li Yi. and among her colleagues the American-trained embryologist Dr. Chang Tao-Gan. The psychiatrist Ling Ming-Yo) represents to field hitherto little cultivated in China. Both these medical colleges were running up-to-date teaching hospitals. 土云关学院最初是由国际知名的爱丁堡生理学家罗伯特·林(林可胜)少将组织成立的。该学院为军队培训各级医疗人员,交替进行实验室课程和实践经验。陈文贵博士的模范疫苗厂和细菌学实验室值得一提;凌飞青博士正在研究本土青霉菌株的青霉素生产。一个有趣且宝贵的X射线设备修理站(中国唯一的一个)由她的丈夫戎杜山博士负责。在教学化学方面,李冠华博士组织了一些极其巧妙的半微量方法,看到他的班级使用这些方法真是一种乐趣。这里还生产了试剂偏钨酸钠。湘雅医学院(院长张孝骞,克罗格的学生)的建筑有些简陋;但有一些优秀的人才,如药理学家清文瑟博士,他正在研究对痢疾具有依米替宁类作用的中草药“鸦胆子”。贵阳医学院(院长李宗恩,曾在格拉斯哥接受培训)拥有杰出的病理学家李毅博士,以及她的同事、接受过美国培训的胚胎学家张道干博士。精神科医生凌明耀代表了中国以往鲜少涉足的领域。这两所医学院都开设了现代化的教学医院。
Two of Zinsser’s pupils in Kweiyang, Dr. Wei Hsi, of the National epidemics Prevention Bureau branch laboratory, and Dr. Liu Pin-Yang of Hsiangya, were engaged upon a very interesting project, namely, the cultivation of typhus Rickettsia bodies in the eaelomic fluid of silkworm larvae and pupae (in which good growth is obtained.) instead of the yolk-sac of the cheek embryo. If this method could be used successfully, it would greatly simplify the preparation of the Cox vaccine under Chinese conditions, where incubators are not available but silkworms are. The regular Army Medical College at Anshun (director, Lieut.-General Chang Chien) is located outside the town on an airy Moorland in a spacious old Ching dynasty Barracks, with the vicarious institutes scattered around in scenery like that, of the Scottish Highlands. The most important institutes are those of bacteriology, directed by M ajor-General Li Chen-Pin, and of nutritional sciences, under Dr. Wan Hsing, Li Chen-Pen, when at the Rockefeller Institute in younger days, carried out classical work with T. M. Rivers. Rivers and Goodpasture were the cultivate viruses on the chorio-allantoic membrane of the thick embryo; Rivers and Li were the first to cultivate them (vaccinia and yellow fever) on explanted fibroblaets. Yellow fever vaccine is still prepared in this way. Unfortunately, lack of equipment prevents much research in three institutes. though manufacture of Vaccine goes on. The pharmaceutical institute maintains a model factory in which there is a certain production of drugs, and there is a good pharmaceutical garden and farm under Dr. Kuan Kuang-Ti. The Army is planting in Szechuan hundreds of thousands of saplings of the tree Dichroa febrifuga, from which is derived the drug ‘changshan’ known in the Chinese pharmacopceia at least as far back as the Sung dynasty, and recently found in both London and Chicago to have a parasitocidal action in animal malaria. One of the best types of institution in the Chinese development of the sciences has been the provincial science institute. Reference has already been made to certain of these seen in other provinces; but the one at Kweiyang, directed by Dr. Ling Shgo-Wen, from the Emergency Medical Service Training school, was extremely good. For popular education there were really good exhibits of parasitology, highway engineering, war gases, embryology (including man)? geology and mineralogy, and nutrition. A splendid room, prepared by Mr. Liu Ting-Wei, a great authority on the subject, demonstrated the life-cycle of the Kweichow wax-insects, allied to aphids. This indigenous industry gives a large annual production of highest-quality wax, and both the insects life-cycle and the industrial methods are very curious. The Provincial Science Institute also manufactured scientific apparatus for schools, and had been planned with spacious centralized laboratories for school practical work; but in war-time it had proved impossible to equip them. 在贵阳,齐斯纳(Zinsser)的两名学生——国家流行病预防局分支实验室的魏希博士和湘雅的刘品阳博士,正在从事一个非常有趣的项目,即在蚕幼虫和蛹的体液中培养斑疹伤寒立克次氏体(在其中可以获得良好的生长),而不是在鳃胚胎的卵黄囊中。如果这种方法能够成功使用,将大大简化在中国条件下的考克斯疫苗制备工作,因为在中国没有孵化器但有蚕。位于安顺的正规陆军医学院(院长张健少将)位于城外空气清新的荒原上,位于宽敞的清代营房内,周围分布着类似苏格兰高地风光的替代研究所。最重要的研究所是细菌学研究所,由少将李振斌领导,以及万兴博士领导下的营养科学研究所。李振斌年轻时在洛克菲勒研究所工作时,曾与T.M.里弗斯(T. M. Rivers)进行过经典研究。里弗斯和古德帕斯特(Goodpasture)曾在厚胚胎的绒毛膜尿囊膜上培养病毒;里弗斯和李是第一个在移植的成纤维细胞上培养它们(痘苗和黄热病)的人。黄热病疫苗至今仍采用这种方法制备。然而,由于缺乏设备,这三个研究所无法进行太多的研究,尽管疫苗的生产仍在进行。药学研究所维护着一家模范工厂,生产一定数量的药物,还有关广体博士管理的一个优质药用植物园和农场。军队在四川种植了数十万棵常山树苗,这种树的药用部分“常山”至少在宋代的中国药典中就有记载,最近在伦敦和芝加哥都发现它对动物疟疾有杀虫作用。在中国科学发展过程中,省级科学研究所是最好的机构之一。前文已经提到了在其他省份看到的一些研究所;但是由紧急医疗服务培训学校毕业的凌绍文博士领导的贵阳研究所却非常出色。在普及教育方面,寄生虫学、公路工程学、战争气体、胚胎学(包括人类)、地质学和矿物学以及营养学都有很好的展示。刘廷威先生是这个领域的权威人士,他准备了一个精美的房间,展示了与蚜虫有关的贵州蜡虫的生命周期。这种本土产业每年都能产出大量优质蜡,而且昆虫的生命周期和工业方法都非常奇特。省科学研究所还为学校制造科学仪器,并计划建立宽敞的集中实验室供学校进行实践工作;但在战时,配备这些设备却证明是不可能的。
If the exhibitions at the Kweiyang Science Toqtitute were the best I had seen the apparatus manufactured at the Kuangsi Science Institute was the best of its kind. A good many reading machines, for use with the microfilmed journals sent out by the British Council and the State Department of the United States, have been made here. The Institute, which had an excellent building, adjoined those of Kuangsi University (president Li Yun-Hus, a. chemical engineering) around a sloping oatch of grass in the hills, rather resembling an English village green, at Liangfeng, some 25 km. south of kweilin. Near by, among groves of pine trees, were the wooden buildings of the Academia Sinica Institutes of Geology (under the internationally known Dr. Li Se-Kuang (J. S. Lee), of Physics (under Dr. Ting hailing), and of Psychology ( under Dr. Tang Yueh). 广西科学研究所举办的展览是我见过的最好的展览,而广西科学研究所制造的仪器则是同类中最好的。这里制造了许多阅读机,用于阅读英国文化协会和美国国务院发送的缩微胶卷期刊。该研究所拥有一座优秀的大楼,与广西大学(校长李云虎,化学工程专家)的大楼相邻,周围是一片斜坡草地,位于良峰,距离桂林约25公里,颇似英国村庄的绿地。在附近的松树林中,是中国科学院地质研究所(由国际知名的李四光博士领导)、物理研究所(由丁西林博士领导)和心理学研究所(由唐悦博士领导)的木屋建筑。
When I was there, Dr. Li was particularly interested in the distortions produced in stone under glaciation, analogous to the ‘bending’ of tombstones, etc. Work was proceeding on palaeobotany (Sse Hsing-Chien), Kleintektonik (Chang Shou-chang), and mineral ore structure (Wang Yin-chih). Associated with Dr. Ting was Dr. Parker Chen (Chen Tsunq-Chi), the well- known former colleague of Sven Hedin. Away in the hills a very fine terrestrial magnetism station was working ; located in a specially built non-magnetic and thermostatic house, it took continuous photo-graphic recordings of ail three elements, and possessed excellent apparatus, some of it made in the Institute’s own workshops. The smallest of the three institutes was that of Psychology (really developmental physiology of the nervous system); Dr. Tang was carrying out transplantation on the beautiful transparent tadpoles of Microhyla ornata. There was a particularly good library of neurology and experimental morphology, housed in a separate building. Probably the best scientific department of Kuangsi University was that of chemistry. Here Dr. Amos peng (peng Kuang-Chin) was working hard with his group on the indigenous plants which contain rubber in their sap. Several useful new sources in Kuangsi have been found, notably the climbing fig pumila and the giant vine Chonomorpha? macrophylla. Many experimental articles have been made from these rubbers. 我去的时候,李博士对冰川作用下石头产生的变形特别感兴趣,这与墓碑等的“弯曲”类似。古植物学(谢兴建)、古地磁学(张寿昌)和矿物矿石结构(王银志)等方面的研究工作正在进行。与丁博士合作的是帕克·陈(陈遵基)博士,他是斯文·赫丁的知名前同事。在山里有一个非常好的地磁观测站,它位于一座特别建造的非磁性恒温房屋内,持续对所有三个要素进行照相记录,并配备了优良的仪器,其中一些是研究所自己车间制造的。三个研究所中最小的是心理学研究所(实际上是神经系统发育生理学);唐博士正在对美丽的透明微蛙(Microhyla ornata)的蝌蚪进行移植实验。神经学和实验形态学图书馆特别好,位于一座单独的建筑物内。广西大学最好的科学系可能是化学系。在这里,阿莫斯·彭(彭光进)博士与他的团队致力于研究含有树液橡胶的本土植物。在广西,他们发现了几个有用的新来源,尤其是爬藤榕和无毛钩藤等巨型藤本植物。这些橡胶已经制成了许多实验用品。
The other most outstanding scientist institution in Kuangsi province was probably the Ministry or Agriculture’s Experiment Station at Shatang, near Liuchow, covering 7,000 acres and comprising many good laboratories. Directed by Dr. Ma Bao-Chih, the translator of Sturtevant and Beadles and other important books, it was a scene of great activity. Choosing at random from among the divisions, Dr. Huang liang (economic entomology) demonstrated the bamboo comb designed for use by the farmers to get the catorpillars of the rice skipper, Parnara guttata, off the rice plants, and the box coated inside with a sticky mixture of pine resin and teaseed oil for getting the flea beetle. Phylloireta wittata, off the cabbages. Dr. Chang Hsin-Cheng (a pupil of Walesman) demonstrated the production of inoculum of root-nodule bacteria. Particular attention was being paid to sugar-cane improvement, tung-oil tree (Aleurites fordii) culture, rice selection, and storage of citrus fruits. Dr. Huang Rjui-Lun had shown that during the storage of the pomelo or ‘yudze’, the ascorbic acid content actually rises, up to a maximum. Attention was being paid to naturally occurring insecticides. 广西省另一个最杰出的科学机构可能是位于柳州附近的沙塘农业部实验站,占地7000英亩,拥有许多良好的实验室。该实验站由马保志博士领导,他翻译了斯特蒂文特和比德尔斯等人的重要著作,这里活动频繁。从各个部门中随机选择,黄亮博士(经济昆虫学)展示了为农民设计的竹制梳子,用于从水稻植株上清除稻纵卷叶螟(Parnara guttata)的幼虫,以及涂有松脂和桐油混合物的粘性涂层的盒子,用于捕捉菜青虫(Phyllotreta vittata)。常心诚博士(威尔士曼的学生)展示了根瘤菌菌剂的生产。他们特别关注甘蔗改良、油桐(Aleurites fordii)栽培、水稻选育和柑橘类水果的贮藏。黄瑞伦博士已经证明,在柚子或“柚子”的贮藏过程中,抗坏血酸含量实际上会上升,达到最大值。他们正在关注天然杀虫剂。
Circumstances have forced me to make considerable use of the past tense in tiffs article. It will be remembered that in law year’s campaign, the Japanese from Changsha as a focus on the southern edge of the Japan-held north-east quarter of China, pushed down to Hengyang, cutting off the far south eastern provinces, and then successively down to Kweilin, Liuchow, and Nanning, thus acquiring a corridor with Indo-China. From Liuchow they pushed up the railway to railhead at Tushan and a little beyond, but stopped at the frontier of Kweichow, not however without having caused a partial evacuation of Kweiyang, What happened to the scientific workers? 由于形势所迫,我在本文中大量使用了过去时态。还记得去年的战役中,日军以长沙为焦点,从东北四分之三的日本占领区的南部边缘向南推进到衡阳,切断了远东南各省的联系,然后相继推进到桂林、柳州和南宁,从而获得了通往印度支那的走廊。从柳州出发,他们沿着铁路向上推进到土山站及稍远的地方,但在贵州边境停下,不过并没有停止对桂林的部分疏散。那么科学工作者们的情况如何呢?
It is sad to have to record that Liangfeng centre was practically destroyed. The Academia Sinica Institute evacuated their personnel to Chungking, but lost a great deal of apparatus which could ill be spared. The Library of the Institute of Psychology was almost completely lost. Kuangsi University personnel were evacuated into the mountain west of Liuchow and have not been heard of since. B0th the Provincial Science Institutes were ruined, that at Liangfeng by the Japanese, and that at Kweiyang, with its laboriously arranged exhibitions, by having Chinese troops quartered in it and being “put in a posture of defence”. The Shatang agriculture station was overrun; but it is believed that the records were evacuated in time. It is to be feared that some scientific workers and their families were caught in the congested refugee areas at railhead, where the mortality was appalling. I myself met Mrs. Chou, the wife of the Fukienese physicist Chou Chang-Ning (a Cavendish man), on the station platform at Liuchou just before the fall of Kweilin, and did what I could to assist the onward journey of her and her children. 我不得不悲痛地记载,良峰中心几乎被彻底摧毁。中央研究院各所将人员疏散至重庆,但损失了大量难以替代的仪器设备。心理研究所的图书馆几乎全部丧失。广西大学的人员被疏散到柳州西面的山里,自此音讯全无。两所省立科学研究所均遭到毁坏,凉风的那所毁于日军之手,桂林的那所则毁于驻扎其中的中国军队,他们将其“置于防御态势”,令其苦心安排的展览化为乌有。沙塘农业站也被日军侵占;但据信,相关记录已经及时疏散。恐怕有些科学工作者及其家人在铁路终点的拥挤难民营中被困,那里的死亡率惊人。桂林沦陷前不久,我在柳州火车站台上遇到了福建物理学家周昌宁(曾在卡文迪许实验室工作)的夫人周夫人,我尽力帮助他们母子继续前行。
Fortunately,Tsunyi,meitan,and Anshun were not affected; but Kweichou University was, the students and professors simply setting out to work,carrying what books and apparatus they could, as if? it were thousand years ago. This University has now reassembled at Huachi. Hsiangya and Kweiyang Medical Colleges, however, managed? to secure some truck transport and moved to Chungking, where they are remaining? for the time being. 幸运的是,遵义、湄潭和安顺没有受到影响;但贵州大学受到了影响,学生和教授们只是开始工作,带着他们能够携带的书籍和仪器,仿佛回到了千年前。现在这所大学已经在花溪重新集结。然而,湘雅医学院和贵阳医学院设法获得了一些卡车运输,并搬到了重庆,目前他们仍在那里。
Western Kuangsi was recaptured early this year from the Japanese, but in a ravaged state. The city or Liuchow ,for example, was burns to the ground. The scientific development of these provinces was just in its opening phase, stimulated by the evaluation from the coaxial cities; it has been distressing to see so cruel a frost nip it in the bud. 广西西部今年早些时候从日军手中夺回,但已是一片废墟。例如,柳州城被烧成了平地。这些省份的科学发展正处于起步阶段,受到周边城市的推动;看到如此残酷的严寒将其扼杀在萌芽状态,真是令人痛心。